Collection of samples printed onto microarrays at three                    Selective binding of a given target to particular
 different concentrations as triplicates                                                samples printed in the array



The microarray technology is a high-throughput tool that enables the simultaneous analyses of a large number of biomolecular interactions using very small amounts of sample. The IQFR microarray platform provides a tailor-made service that offers the possibility of building “designer” microarrays by printing in the arrays the samples of interest for a given study. A wide repertoire of samples can be printed, from purified biomolecules (proteins, lipids, or carbohydrates) to more complex samples, as cell extracts or fractions, and even extracellular vesicles and entire bacterial or yeast cells. Thus, a great diversity of functional and molecular recognition studies can be performed, covering from studies on particular receptor‒counter-receptor pairs or evaluation of compounds as inhibitors of the interaction, to analyses of large collections of clinical samples.

The approach involves three main steps, namely, preparation of samples for microarray printing, microarray printing and quality control, and microarray validation and binding assays (see Methods Enzymol 2018;598:37-70 and Methods Mol Biol 2022;2460:147-60). Manual or robotic arraying and protocols to be followed in each step are established based on the number and type of samples to be printed, and the targets to be tested.








Examples of applications are presented in the following publications:

Vanacore A, Vitiello G, Wanke A, Cavasso D, Clifton LA, Mahdi L, Campanero-Rhodes MA, Solís D, Wuhrer M, Nicolardi S, Molinaro A, Marchetti R, Zuccaro A, Paduano L, Silipo A (2022) Lipopolysaccharide O-antigen molecular and supramolecular modifications of plant root microbiota are pivotal for host recognition. Carbohydr Polym 277:118839 (doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118839).

Campanero-Rhodes MA, Kalograiaki I, Euba B, Llobet E, Ardá A, Jiménez-Barbero J, Garmendia J, Solís D (2021) Exploration of galectin ligands displayed on gram-negative respiratory bacterial pathogens with different cell surface architectures. Biomolecules 11:595 (doi: 10.3390/biom11040595).

Campanero-Rhodes MA, Lacoma A, Prat C, García E, Solís D (2020) Development and evaluation of a microarray platform for detection of serum antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides. Anal Chem 92:7437-43.

Kalograiaki I, Euba B, Fernández-Alonso MDC, Proverbio D, St Geme JW 3rd, Aastrup T, Garmendia J, Cañada FJ, Solís D (2018) Differential recognition of Haemophilus influenzae whole bacterial cells and isolated lipooligosaccharides by galactose-specific lectins. Sci Rep 8:16292 (doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34383-x).

Kalograiaki I, Abellán-Flos M, Fernández LA, Menéndez M, Vincent SP, Solís D (2018) Direct evaluation of live uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion and efficiency of anti-adhesive compounds using a simple microarray approach. Anal Chem 90:12314-21.

Bustamante N, Iglesias-Bexiga M, Bernardo-García N, Silva-Martín N, García G, Campanero-Rhodes MA, García E, Usón I, Buey RM, García P, Hermoso JA, Bruix M, Menéndez M (2017) Deciphering how Cpl-7 cell wall-binding repeats recognize the bacterial peptidoglycan. Sci Rep 7:16494 (doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-16392-4).

Kalograiaki I, Euba B, Proverbio D, Campanero-Rhodes MA, Aastrup T, Garmendia J, Solís D (2016) Combined bacteria microarray and quartz crystal microbalance approach for exploring glycosignatures of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and recognition by host lectins. Anal Chem 88:5950-57.

Campanero-Rhodes MA, Llobet E, Bengoechea JA, Solís D (2015) Bacteria microarrays as sensitive tools for exploring pathogen surface epitopes and recognition by host receptors. RSC Adv 5:7173-81.